Apple dates October 13 iPhone 12 launch event: The presentation of the iPhone 12 seems to already have official date for its long release. Apple has announced on its website a new event for October 13 at 19: 00 in the afternoon Spanish time peninsular.

Don't say exactly what it is, but it's all pointing to the announcement of the expected smartphones of the company from Cupertino, as it is usually presented in September —there was an event that presented the new iPads and some other service— but the crisis of the coronavirus has had to delay its presentation.

As for what is known about the new iPhones, the latest rumors frame it as the most powerful mobile on the planet. In addition, the various information assures that it would be released next October 23 at a price lower than the cost of departure that had the iPhone 11 last year.

Apple dates October 13 iPhone 12 launch event

If analysts are right, the device would be the first iPhone to have 5G and, as pointed out by the slogan of the event Apple, Hi, Speed, surely it is one of those rumors that end up coming true.

As for its presentation, the Apple company has invited its fans or anyone interested to follow the event through its website, as usual, or watch it on its official YouTube channels.

End of Apple dates October 13 iPhone 12 launch event

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T cells are shaping up as the best weapon of the coronavirus vaccine, even above antibodies: which Pharmaceuticals lead the race

There are now 42 coronavirus vaccine candidates being tested in clinical trials and more than 150 in preclinical evaluation, according to the latest update from the World Health Organization.

Some of the more advanced ones began to develop at the beginning of the year and could reach the market before the end of 2020, which would be a historic milestone in Vaccine Research.

However, the fact that candidates have begun to develop without many questions about coronavirus immunity being known calls into question their real ability to stem the spread.

In fact, several experts have already warned that the first vaccines to reach the market are likely not to be the most effective.

In addition, the passage of months has shown that antibodies that are generated in response to the disease - and that manufacturers used to measure the success of their vaccines— disappear over time, casting doubt on a candidate's ability to generate long-term protection.

"The first vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 will probably be authorized based on the neutralizing antibodies it displays in Phase 2 trials, but there are significant concerns about using antibody response in coronavirus infections as the only measure of protective immunity," says Marc Hellerstein, an expert at the University of Berkeley, in an article published in the journal Vaccine.

Hellerstein is one of many scientists who advocate diverting the focus of antibodies into a more effective and lasting immune response: that generated by T cells.

- The disappointment of antibodies

For many months, the most urgent question to answer was how long the antibodies generated to fight the disease lasted and whether they conferred immunity against reinfection.

The disappointment accompanied the first studies that discovered that the antibodies disappeared after three months and doubts about a lasting immunity were cleared with the confirmation of cases of reinfection.

Hellerstein points out that antibodies are not the primary protective response to coronavirus infection, which he says is already seen with the SARS epidemic. In contrast, T-cell response has been linked in both cases to a better prognosis in patients.

"If you are going to approve a vaccine based on a laboratory marker, the key question is,' what is its relationship to protective immunity?'My opinion is that T cells have correlated much better than antibodies with protective immunity against coronaviruses, including this coronavirus,' concludes the expert.

- Focusing only on protein s is also a mistake

Hellerstein has also expressed concern that most vaccines under development focus exclusively on inducing an antibody response against a single virus protein: protein s, which is located on the surface of the virus and opens the door to cells.

Recent research has shown that natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 stimulates a broad T-cell response against several viral proteins, not just S-protein.

Isabel Sola, titular scientist and co-director with Luis Enjuanes of the coronavirus Laboratory of the National Center for Biotechnology (CNB) of the Superior Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), highlights the same drawback in the candidate of the vaccine Astra Zeneca and the University of Oxford.

"The viral vector expresses protein s, but we know that there are other vital proteins," Sola warned in an earlier interview with Business Insider Spain.

The scientist noted that protein s has been shown to be relevant for the production of neutralizing antibodies, but that the cellular response is becoming more relevant.

- Redefine the goal of vaccines: induce T cells

While studies on antibodies have caused discouragement, new research on T-lymphocytes allow to be optimistic, since they are present in 100% of patients who have passed the disease, according to data from the University Hospital of Tübingen (Germany).

Researchers at the Karolinska Institute also point out that their results indicate that " people who have developed T-cell immunity come to be double compared to those in which we can detect antibodies."

In addition, the presence of these cells caused by similar coronavirus infections-such as those that cause common colds— could also protect people, a process known as cross immunity.

Several studies, such as that of the University Hospital in Tübingen itself (but also others from the University of Rotterdam or the La Jolla Institute) indicate that many of the uninfected patients had immune cells capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2.

Another, from the Charité-Universitätsmedizin in Berlin and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, has found that one in three people without previous exposure to SARS-CoV - 2 has T cells capable of recognizing the virus.

"The last thing we want is for immunized people to get sick in a few months or a year, or to get sick more than they would. Whoever pays for or approves vaccine trials has an obligation to ensure that we observe the quality and durability of the T-cell response," says Hellerstein.

Major companies have been shown to induce a good cellular response

The three major companies leading the vaccine race and aspiring to receive an emergency authorization have reported the cellular response their candidate induces as they have observed in their clinical trials.

The vaccine from AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford appears to generate response from T cells, according to an article published in The Lancet, which notes that this defense reached its peak on Day 14, and was maintained months after the injection. However, it does not specify whether these were responses from CD4+ (helpers) or CD8+ (killer) T cells.

In addition, this candidate requires a second dose and scientists did not detect that the second injection increased the cellular response.

For its part, Modern, the American biotechnologist who was ahead of all major pharmacists at the time being the first to start a trial in humans, has also ensured that its vaccine generates cell response type CD8+. The response is specific against protein s and the results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Finally, the candidate developed by the German biotechnologist BioNTech and the pharmaceutical giant Pfizer has been shown to induce a cellular response with both types of T lymphocytes as well as neutralizing antibodies, but also against a specific antigen.

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