Proud to introduce to you Caesar

Gaius Iulius Caesar

Caesar - by his full name Gaius Iulius Caesar (~100 BC - d. March 15, 44 BC, also known as Julius Caesar) was a Roman political and military leader and one of the most influential and controversial figures in history.

His role was essential in setting up the dictatorship in Rome, liquidating democracy in the Republic and establishing the Roman Empire.

It caused wars of conquest without the acceptance of the Roman Senate.

The conquest of Gaul, planned by Caesar, included territories under the Roman domination to the Atlantic Ocean.

In 55 BC. Caesar launched the first Roman invasion in Britain.


Caesar nicknames

Ces, Czar or Cessie

Age at death

55 years old

Most loved person

Queen Cleopatra


Caesar emerged victorious in a civil war, becoming a dictator of the Roman world, and initiated a vast action of reforming the Roman society and its governance.

He was proclaimed a dictator for life, and he centralized strong government of the weakened state because of the civil war also started by him.

His friend, Marcus Brutus, is plotting to assassinate him, hoping to save the republic.

The assassination drama of Mars' Ideals was the catalyst of a second civil war, between Caesars (Octavian, Marc Antoniu, Lepidus) and Republicans (among others, Brutus, Cassius and Cicero).

The conflict ended with the victory of the Caesars in the Battle of Philippi and the formal establishment of a Second Triumvirate, in which Octavian, Antoniu and Lepidus took control of Rome together.

The tensions between Octavian and Antoniu led to a new civil war, culminating in the defeat of Antony in the Battle of Actium, Octavian became the absolute leader of the Roman world.

The period of civil wars transformed the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire, with grandparent grandson, and also adoptive son of the emperor, Octavian, later known as Cezar August, installing himself as the first emperor.

His military campaigns are well-known in detail through his own recordings: "Commentaries by Bello Gallico".

Many details of his life were later reported by historians, such as Suetonius, Plutarh, and Cassius Dio.

Early life

Caesar was born in Rome, in a well-known family of patricians (Ginta Julia), presumably descended from Julius, the son of Trojan prince Eneas, who, legendously, was the son of Venus. According to a legend, Caesar's birth was possible via caesarean, but it is unlikely, because at that time such an incision was made only on the deceased women. Caesar grew up in a modest dwelling of an ancient building (island) in Suburba, the middle-class district of Rome. Caesar's family, though with patrician descendancy, so aristocratic, was not wealthy, according to the standards of the Roman nobility. Thus, no family member has ever been remarked in society during Caesar's childhood, although in his father's generation a renewal of family fortune had taken place. The paternal aunt, Julia, married Gaius Marius, a talented and reforming general of the Roman army. Marius became one of the richest inhabitants of Rome, his political influence also contributing to the improvement of the material situation of Caesar's family.

Toward the end of Marius' life, in 86 BC, internal politics reached a point of rupture. During this period, Roman politicians were generally divided into two parties: Populares, which included Marius and Optimates, including Lucius Cornelius Sulla. A series of disputes between the two parties led to a civil war, finally opening Sulla's path to the post of dictator. Because of the family bond, Caesar was adherent to Marius's party. He was not just Marius's nephew: he was married to Cornelia Cinnilla, the youngest daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, who was Marius's greatest sympathizer and Sulla's declared enemy. In 85 BC, when Caesar was 15, his father became ill and died. Caesar became the heir of most properties and assets owned by his father and Marius.

When Sulla emerged victorious from the civil war and began his enlistment program, Caesar, aged 20, was in a difficult situation. Sulla ordered them in 82 BC. to divorce Cornelia, but Caesar refused and went away from Rome to hide. Sulla pardoned Caesar and his family and allowed her to return to Rome. At a prophetic moment, it is said that Sulla commented on the danger of leaving Caesar alive. According to Suetonius, when the Caesar's exile was revoked, the dictator would have said, "He, whose life you want so much, will someday become the one who will overthrow the nobles whose cause you support with me; for in this one Caesar you will find many like Marius. "

Despite his pardon, Caesar did not stay in Rome and went to Asia and Cilicia to meet military service. In Asia Minor, Caesar was involved in several military operations. In 80 BC, still under the command of Thermus, he played the pivotal role in the siege of the Miletus. During the battle, Caesar proved so personal personal bravado to save the legionaries' lives that it was subsequently decorated with the civic crown distinction (acorn crown), one of the highest honors given to a non-commander military and even publicly worn and in the presence of the senators of Rome; everyone was obliged to stop and applaud the presence of the bearer of this civic crown.

In Rome, in 78 BC, after the death of Sulla, Caesar made his political debut at the Rome Forum as a lawyer, acknowledged for his oratorial status and unrelenting attitude towards the former governors who were brought to justice for fraud and corruption. The great orator Cicero commented: "Is there anyone who has the capacity to speak better than Caesar?" Targeting to perfection in rhetoric, Caesar departed in 75 BC. for philosophy and orthology studies in Rhodes, where he had the famous Apollonius Molo.

On his way to the island, Caesar was kidnapped in the Mediterranean by the Cilician pirates. When they demanded a ransom of twenty talents, Caesar laughed at them, saying they had no idea who they were captured. Caesar ordered them to ask for fifty. They also accepted and Caesar sent his disciples to various cities to raise the redemption money. In total, he was detained for thirty-six days, during which he often threatened, ironically, that he would crucify them. Taking on the word, as soon as he was redeemed and released, Caesar organized a naval force that managed to capture the pirates and conquer the fortress of their island. Caesar ordered the killing of the pirates by crucifixion, as a warning given to all pirates. But since the pirates had treated him well during the kidnapping, Caesar ordered that before their crucifixion their legs would be fractured to reduce their suffering during the torture.

After returning to Rome in 73 BC, Caesar was elected a member of the Pontifical College. Caesar's return to Rome took place in the midst of the slaves' rebellion led by former Spartacus gladiator. The Senate had sent legions for legions to defeat the revolt, but Spartacus's forces had come out victorious every time. In 72 BC, the Roman Assemblies chose Caesar as military tribunal, this being his first step in political life. In 71 BC, Marcus Crassus became the coordinator of the actions taken to crush the rebels ruled by Spartacus. Caesar was one of Crassus's few supporters in an attempt to restore order in the state. The Senate appointed Crassus for this cause, and Crassus formed six new legions, recruiting the young Caesar to serve as a law tribunal. After a few defeats, Crassus's power defeated Spartacus in 71 BC. During his time together, Cezar and Crassus became friends, which later contributed to the careers of both. But Caesar's triumph would soon turn into disaster.

In 69 BC, Caesar was widowed after Cornelius died in an attempt to bring a child to the world, and he died. In the same year he lost his aunt, Julia, whom he was very attached to. These two deaths left Caesar in the position to raise alone a young daughter, Julia Cezaris. There is no tradition that the Roman women have funful public funerals, but Caesar deviated from tradition in this regard. During the funeral, Caesar sent praise from Rostra. Julia's aunt's funerals were loaded with political connotations, Caesar insisting that the mortuary mask have the physiognomy of Marius. Although Caesar was very close to both women (according to Suetonius' writings), these speeches were interpreted by his political opponents as propaganda aimed at his election as quaestor.

"Cursus honorum" of Caesar

The People's Assembly elected him in 69 BC. Caesar, at the age of thirty, in the position of quaestor, as provided in honorus. He was randomly assigned to a quaestor in Hispania Later, a Roman province located in today's Portugal and southern Spain. His career as an administrative and financial dignitary in Hispania was generally devoid of events; At that time the famous meeting with a statue of Alexander the Great took place. It is said that he would have stopped and wept at the temple of Hercules in Gades. Asked why he had such a reaction, he replied simply: "Do you think I have no reason to cry, when I think that at my age Alexander had conquered so many nations, and I did not realize anything memorable all this time ? ".

Caesar was soon released from the position of quaestor and allowed to return to Rome. In spite of the pain of losing his wife, which all accounts suggest he loved very much, Caesar remarried in 67 BC, of political interest. But, this time, she chose a strange union. His new wife, Pompeia, was Sulla's niece and Quintus Pompei's daughter. Although he seemed to have joined the optimal senators, Caesar's other actions had little to do with conservative politics, and he continued his way to supporting the politics of the group called folk. Caesar supported Lex Gabinia, which offered Pompey unlimited powers to solve problems with Cilician pirates. Later, in front of the oppressive resistance of the best, Caesar supported Lex Manilia, who offered Pompey the unique military command of the Roman forces in the East in the wars against Mithridate VI the Eupator. The good relationship with the great General Pompey served Caesar with his political career. The rivalry between Pompey and Crassus, Caesar's mentor, seemed to have had no effect on Caesar. Crassus continued to take over the years of Caesar's great debt. In addition to supporting the laws of Pompey Caesar's command as a curator of Appian Road (Via Appia). The maintenance of this route, which stretched from Rome to Cumae and passed beyond the heel of the "boot" of the peninsula Italy, was of major importance, and the curator's post was a high dignity. Although personally require enormous costs, the position offered great prestige to a young senator. Crassus's support made Caesar the full task. During that time, Caesar continued his judicial career until his election in 65 BC, as an edil (curled aedile), alongside Bibulus, a young rival, member of the faction of optimists.

The position of magistrate was the next step in honus, which proved to be a great opportunity for the master of the Romanian public. Curleys were responsible for such public duties as building and caring for temples, public buildings, traffic and other aspects of Rome's daily life; perhaps, above all, the councils cared for the organization of public games on the occasion of state holidays and the administration of the Maximus Circus. Caesar borrowed, at that time, to the point of bankruptcy, but he irreversibly increased his popularity among the common people. The games he organized were spectacular and his ambitious construction projects. In a show organized in honor of his father, Caesar portrayed 320 pairs of silver armor gladiators, which cost enormously.

Caesar pushed his agenda further by raising some statues of Marius. The senate felt ultragayed, but Caesar's popularity made it almost intangible. Senators could try to block their political route by other means. Caesar might have been nominated to take the lead in suppressing a revolt in Egypt but could not have enough support to get that job. Caesar ended his year as an elder in glory, but bankrupt. His debts reached several hundred talents of gold (equivalent to several million euros at the current exchange rate), threatening the future of his career. His coil, Bibulus, was so impatient in comparison that he would later declare the frustration that throughout the time as the Elder, the merits were attributed to Caesar alone, instead of sharing the praises with Bibulus.

The success in the dignity of the elder was Caesar's great help at his election as Pontifex Maximus (high priest) in 63 BC, following the death of his predecessor, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. The position meant occupying a new house - Domus Publica (public house) - in For, involving the responsibility for all the Roman religious attributions and the patronage of the vestigial priests of the goddess Vesta. For Caesar, appointment meant relief of his debts; at the same time it gave him considerable power. Although in technical terms the Pontiff did not represent a political position, it also offered considerable advantages in relation to the Senate and legislative changes.

The debut as pontifex was marked by a scandal. Following the death of his wife, Cornelia, Caesar married in 67 BC. with Pompeia Sulla, a granddaughter of Sulla. As a wife of pontifex and matroana (Latin "married woman"), Pompeia was responsible for organizing the Bona Dea festival in December, a ritual dedicated exclusively to women and considered sacred. But Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to penetrate into the house where he was, disguised as a woman. This was considered absolute sacrilege, which is why Pompeia received a divorce letter. Caesar himself admitted that Pompeia might have been innocent, but said: "Caesar's wife, like Caesar's entire family, must be above suspicion."

63 BC it was a difficult year not only for Caesar, but also for the Roman Republic. Caesar ran and won the presidential election in 62 BC. Before he had settled in his new post, Catilina's Conspiracy was triggered, which put Caesar back in direct conflict with optimism. Lucius Sergius Catilina, twice a consul candidate, faces allegations of planning to overthrow the republic by armed rebellion. But Catilina's guilt was controversial. At the election of the end of 63 BC, Marcus Tullius Cicero defeated Catilina in the consular electoral race.

Shortly thereafter, Crassus received anonymous letters informing him that various senators had to leave Rome to avoid massacring government leaders. Crassus took Cicero's letters, which presented the Senate's conspiracy. Many of his members did not believe him, being convinced that Cicero made the whole story for political gain. But Cicero's oratoric eloquence convinced the Senate that this plot required extreme action. Senatus consultum ultimum has given Cicero the authority to deal with conspirators. Catilina, among others, became the first target. In response, he decided to flee Rome, but not before he had been involved in a plot to assassinate Cicero. The plot has failed, and Catalina has gone to join the rebellion in Etruria. They were sentenced to death and executed, without trial, five notable Romanians, Catilina's allies. The alternative would be exile, pre-trial incarceration not used; But if they were exiled, the condemned would have been at the head of Catilina's armies in Etruria. The Senate discussed this issue, and Caesar was one of the few who opposed capital punishment.

Involvement in Catilina's business did not cause Caesar any lasting disadvantage. In the following years, Caesar began a mandate as an urban pretor. From this elite position he once again promoted his popular politics. He asked for an account to restore the capital, which the optimists refused. Without success in this attempt, Caesar strengthened his coalition with Pompeii, who would soon return to Rome from his campaigns in the East. Pompey's return was anxious for the optimists, who were afraid of a march in Sulla's style over Rome and the establishment of the dictatorship. They needed to portray the city and its surroundings as a stable environment without the need for Pompey's "restorative order". Pompey's ally, Caecilius Metellus Nepos, however, brought the matter to the Senate, demanding that Pompey be allowed to come to Italy and restore. Caesar supported Nepos and Pompey, but Cato thwarted the motion. Nepos fled Rome to join Pompey, and Caesar was removed from the pretorium. When the crowd in support of Caesar threatened violently, he was reinstated. Caesar calms down the crowd before recourse to violence.

Towards the end of his pretorn mandate, Cezar was found to be embezzled and sued for misappropriation of the fund. Crassus again jumped to his aid, paying a quarter of the total of 20 million dinars. Finally, until 61 BC, Caesar was appointed as the governor of Lusitania, the province where he had been a quaestor. With this appointment, his creditors withdrew, allowing him a profitable status. The abandonment of Rome before officially taking over proved that Caesar did not want to take any risk.

Caesar and his staff rode in force, reaching Rhone in just eight days, and he saw his future ability to organize the high-speed movement of some army units. On their way, many entourage members noted the barbaric and, in their view, the miserable living standard of the villages. Caesar, demonstrating his ambition, replied, "For my part, I would prefer to be the first man among these men than the second in Rome." During his tenure as governor, Caesar strengthened his relationship with the Celtic peoples, which proved to be an important factor in his later plans.

Once he arrived in Hispania, Caesar made a remarkable reputation as a military commander. Between 61 BC and 60 BC, won important battles against the Galician and Lusitan tribes. During one of his victories, his people acclaimed him as an emperor on the battlefield, which was an appreciation of the utmost importance to be an eligible Roman triumph. Caesar is in the face of a dilemma. He wanted to apply for consul post in 59 BC. and for this he had to be present in Rome, but he also wanted to receive the honor for a triumph. Optimis used this dilemma against him, forcing him to wait at the gates of the city until his triumph was confirmed. The delay would have cost Caesar the opportunity to run for the Consul post and put him in front of a fatal decision. In the summer of 60 BC, Caesar entered Rome to run for the highest position in the Roman Republic.

The murder - assassination

The deeds of Caesar, the liquidation of democracy, and the possible proclamation of Caesar as king, amplified the anti-dictatorial spirits, especially after the deposition of a diadem on the statue of Caesar of Rostra. Tribes, Gaius Epidius Marcellus and Lucius Caesetius Flavius have removed this diadem. Not long after this incident, the same two tribes arrested the citizens who pronounced the title of Rex to Caesar as he crossed the streets of Rome. Seeing his threatened supporters, Caesar acted severely. He ordered the release of those arrested and instead brought tributes to the Senate, removing their positions. Caesar had originally used the tribute sanctification as one of the reasons why he started the civil war, but now he revoked his power in his own gain.

The Lupercalia Festival was to be the greatest test for the Romanian people on accepting Caesar as king. On February 15, 44 BC, Caesar sat on his golden seat on Rostra, wearing his red robe, red shoes, crown of laurels and army titled Dictator Perpetuus. The race around the pomerium was a tradition of the festival, and when Marc Antoniu entered the forum, it was raised in Rostra by the priests participating in the festivity. Antony pulled out a diadem and tried to put it on Caesar's head, saying, "The people give you this title of king through me." But the audience cheers were as if they were nonexistent, and Caesar quickly refused, making sure that the headpiece did not touch his head. The audience screamed with approval, but Antoniu ignored the facts and tried to put her on the head for the second time. Not this time, the audience did not exult, and Caesar stood up from his seat and refused again, saying, "I will not be the king of Rome. Jupiter is the only king of the Romans. "The crowd immediately approved the actions of Caesar.

During this time, Caesar planned a new campaign in Dacia and then in Parthia. The Parthenian campaign could have brought considerable riches back to Rome, and the possibility of returning to the standards that Crassus had lost nearly nine years ago. An old legend said that the party could only be conquered by a king, so Caesar was authorized by the Senate to wear a crown anywhere in the empire. Caesar had planned to leave for April 44 BC, and his secret democratic counterparts, whose numbers were constantly growing, had to act in a hurry. Most of the people whom Caesar had already pledged, they were aware that the only way to remove Caesar from the leadership of Rome was to act before he had begun to Parthia.

The place of meeting of the Romanian Senate was traditionally in Curia Hostilia, the repair of which was recently completed after the fires that had destroyed it in previous years, but the Senate abandoned it for a new house under construction. So Caesar summoned the Senate in Theatrum Pompeium (built by Pompey) at Mars Idea on March 15, 44 BC. A few days ago, a predicator had told Caesar: "Beware of Idele's Mars". On the day of the senate meeting, Caesar was attacked and stabbed to death by a group of senators, who were called Liberators; they justified their action by saying that they committed tyrannid, not murder, defending the Republic from the monarchical ambitions claimed by Caesar. Among the assassins who were imprisoned in the Temple of Jupiter were Gaius Trebonius, Decimus Junius Brutus, Marcus Junius Brutus, and Gaius Cassius Longinus; Caesar had enjoyed most of the crimes, and had even advanced them in his career. Marcus Brutus was a distant cousin of Caesar and had been named as one of his testamentary heirs. It is also speculated that Marcus Brutus was the illegitimate son of Caesar, since he had had an affair with Servilia Caepionis, Brutus' mother; but Caesar was only fifteen years old when Brutus was born. Caesar received 23 blows (according to others, even 35), which varied between superficial and deadly, and the irony of fate collapsed at the feet of a statue of his former friend, becoming rival Pompey the Great. Pompey had recently been deposed by the Senate, some reports saying that Caesar prayed to Pompey while he was dying.

Caesar ummary

Caesar was named number 67 in the list of the most influential figures in history, written by Michael H. Hart.

He was given the title Divus, or god, after his death.

During his life, he received many distinctions, including titles such as Pater Patriae (Father of the Fatherland), Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest) and Dictator. In fact, many of the titles for which the Senate has voted are considered a cause of its assassination, in view of the fact that it seemed inappropriate for many of its contemporaries as a mortal to receive so many honors.

Maybe the most significant title he wore was the name he received at birth: Caesar. The name would be given to every Roman Emperor and became a signal of great power and authority away from the boundaries of the empire (such as the German Kaiser and the Russian Tsar).


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