Caesar - by his full name Gaius Iulius Caesar (~100 BC - d. March 15, 44 BC, also known as Julius Caesar) was a Roman political and military leader and one of the most influential and controversial figures in history. His role was essential in setting up the dictatorship in Rome, liquidating democracy in the Republic and establishing the Roman Empire. It caused wars of conquest without the acceptance of the Roman Senate. The conquest of Gaul, planned by Caesar, included territories under the Roman domination to the Atlantic Ocean. In 55 BC. Caesar launched the first Roman invasion in Britain.

Caesar emerged victorious in a civil war, becoming a dictator of the Roman world, and initiated a vast action of reforming the Roman society and its governance. He was proclaimed a dictator for life, and he centralized strong government of the weakened state because of the civil war also started by him. His friend, Marcus Brutus, is plotting to assassinate him, hoping to save the republic. The assassination drama of Mars' Ideals was the catalyst of a second civil war, between Caesars (Octavian, Marc Antoniu, Lepidus) and Republicans (among others, Brutus, Cassius and Cicero). The conflict ended with the victory of the Caesars in the Battle of Philippi and the formal establishment of a Second Triumvirate, in which Octavian, Antoniu and Lepidus took control of Rome together. The tensions between Octavian and Antoniu led to a new civil war, culminating in the defeat of Antony in the Battle of Actium. Octavian became the absolute leader of the Roman world.

The period of civil wars transformed the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire, with grandparent grandson, and also adoptive son of the emperor, Octavian, later known as Cezar August, installing himself as the first emperor.

His military campaigns are well-known in detail through his own recordings: "Commentaries by Bello Gallico". Many details of his life were later reported by historians, such as Suetonius, Plutarh, and Cassius Dio.



Statue of Caesar

Early life

Caesar was born in Rome, in a well-known family of patricians (Ginta Julia), presumably descended from Julius, the son of Trojan prince Eneas, who, legendously, was the son of Venus. According to a legend, Caesar's birth was possible via caesarean, but it is unlikely, because at that time such an incision was made only on the deceased women. Caesar grew up in a modest dwelling of an ancient building (island) in Suburba, the middle-class district of Rome. Caesar's family, though with patrician descendancy, so aristocratic, was not wealthy, according to the standards of the Roman nobility. Thus, no family member has ever been remarked in society during Caesar's childhood, although in his father's generation a renewal of family fortune had taken place. The paternal aunt, Julia, married Gaius Marius, a talented and reforming general of the Roman army. Marius became one of the richest inhabitants of Rome, his political influence also contributing to the improvement of the material situation of Caesar's family.

Toward the end of Marius' life, in 86 BC, internal politics reached a point of rupture. During this period, Roman politicians were generally divided into two parties: Populares, which included Marius and Optimates, including Lucius Cornelius Sulla. A series of disputes between the two parties led to a civil war, finally opening Sulla's path to the post of dictator. Because of the family bond, Caesar was adherent to Marius's party. He was not just Marius's nephew: he was married to Cornelia Cinnilla, the youngest daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, who was Marius's greatest sympathizer and Sulla's declared enemy. In 85 BC, when Caesar was 15, his father became ill and died. Caesar became the heir of most properties and assets owned by his father and Marius.

When Sulla emerged victorious from the civil war and began his enlistment program, Caesar, aged 20, was in a difficult situation. Sulla ordered them in 82 BC. to divorce Cornelia, but Caesar refused and went away from Rome to hide. Sulla pardoned Caesar and his family and allowed her to return to Rome. At a prophetic moment, it is said that Sulla commented on the danger of leaving Caesar alive. According to Suetonius, when the Caesar's exile was revoked, the dictator would have said, "He, whose life you want so much, will someday become the one who will overthrow the nobles whose cause you support with me; for in this one Caesar you will find many like Marius. "

Despite his pardon, Caesar did not stay in Rome and went to Asia and Cilicia to meet military service. In Asia Minor, Caesar was involved in several military operations. In 80 BC, still under the command of Thermus, he played the pivotal role in the siege of the Miletus. During the battle, Caesar proved so personal personal bravado to save the legionaries' lives that it was subsequently decorated with the civic crown distinction (acorn crown), one of the highest honors given to a non-commander military and even publicly worn and in the presence of the senators of Rome; everyone was obliged to stop and applaud the presence of the bearer of this civic crown.

In Rome, in 78 BC, after the death of Sulla, Caesar made his political debut at the Rome Forum as a lawyer, acknowledged for his oratorial status and unrelenting attitude towards the former governors who were brought to justice for fraud and corruption. The great orator Cicero commented: "Is there anyone who has the capacity to speak better than Caesar?" Targeting to perfection in rhetoric, Caesar departed in 75 BC. for philosophy and orthology studies in Rhodes, where he had the famous Apollonius Molo.

On his way to the island, Caesar was kidnapped in the Mediterranean by the Cilician pirates. When they demanded a ransom of twenty talents, Caesar laughed at them, saying they had no idea who they were captured. Caesar ordered them to ask for fifty. They also accepted and Caesar sent his disciples to various cities to raise the redemption money. In total, he was detained for thirty-six days, during which he often threatened, ironically, that he would crucify them. Taking on the word, as soon as he was redeemed and released, Caesar organized a naval force that managed to capture the pirates and conquer the fortress of their island. Caesar ordered the killing of the pirates by crucifixion, as a warning given to all pirates. But since the pirates had treated him well during the kidnapping, Caesar ordered that before their crucifixion their legs would be fractured to reduce their suffering during the torture.

After returning to Rome in 73 BC, Caesar was elected a member of the Pontifical College. Caesar's return to Rome took place in the midst of the slaves' rebellion led by former Spartacus gladiator. The Senate had sent legions for legions to defeat the revolt, but Spartacus's forces had come out victorious every time. In 72 BC, the Roman Assemblies chose Caesar as military tribunal, this being his first step in political life. In 71 BC, Marcus Crassus became the coordinator of the actions taken to crush the rebels ruled by Spartacus. Caesar was one of Crassus's few supporters in an attempt to restore order in the state. The Senate appointed Crassus for this cause, and Crassus formed six new legions, recruiting the young Caesar to serve as a law tribunal. After a few defeats, Crassus's power defeated Spartacus in 71 BC. During his time together, Cezar and Crassus became friends, which later contributed to the careers of both. But Caesar's triumph would soon turn into disaster.

In 69 BC, Caesar was widowed after Cornelius died in an attempt to bring a child to the world, and he died. In the same year he lost his aunt, Julia, whom he was very attached to. These two deaths left Caesar in the position to raise alone a young daughter, Julia Cezaris. There is no tradition that the Roman women have funful public funerals, but Caesar deviated from tradition in this regard. During the funeral, Caesar sent praise from Rostra. Julia's aunt's funerals were loaded with political connotations, Caesar insisting that the mortuary mask have the physiognomy of Marius. Although Caesar was very close to both women (according to Suetonius' writings), these speeches were interpreted by his political opponents as propaganda aimed at his election as quaestor.

"Cursus honorum" of Caesar

The People's Assembly elected him in 69 BC. Caesar, at the age of thirty, in the position of quaestor, as provided in honorus. He was randomly assigned to a quaestor in Hispania Later, a Roman province located in today's Portugal and southern Spain. His career as an administrative and financial dignitary in Hispania was generally devoid of events; At that time the famous meeting with a statue of Alexander the Great took place. It is said that he would have stopped and wept at the temple of Hercules in Gades. Asked why he had such a reaction, he replied simply: "Do you think I have no reason to cry, when I think that at my age Alexander had conquered so many nations, and I did not realize anything memorable all this time ? ".

Caesar was soon released from the position of quaestor and allowed to return to Rome. In spite of the pain of losing his wife, which all accounts suggest he loved very much, Caesar remarried in 67 BC, of ​​political interest. But, this time, she chose a strange union. His new wife, Pompeia, was Sulla's niece and Quintus Pompei's daughter. Although he seemed to have joined the optimal senators, Caesar's other actions had little to do with conservative politics, and he continued his way to supporting the politics of the group called folk. Caesar supported Lex Gabinia, which offered Pompey unlimited powers to solve problems with Cilician pirates. Later, in front of the oppressive resistance of the best, Caesar supported Lex Manilia, who offered Pompey the unique military command of the Roman forces in the East in the wars against Mithridate VI the Eupator. The good relationship with the great General Pompey served Caesar with his political career. The rivalry between Pompey and Crassus, Caesar's mentor, seemed to have had no effect on Caesar. Crassus continued to take over the years of Caesar's great debt. In addition to supporting the laws of Pompey Caesar's command as a curator of Appian Road (Via Appia). The maintenance of this route, which stretched from Rome to Cumae and passed beyond the heel of the "boot" of the peninsula Italy, was of major importance, and the curator's post was a high dignity. Although personally require enormous costs, the position offered great prestige to a young senator. Crassus's support made Caesar the full task. During that time, Caesar continued his judicial career until his election in 65 BC, as an edil (curled aedile), alongside Bibulus, a young rival, member of the faction of optimists.

The position of magistrate was the next step in honus, which proved to be a great opportunity for the master of the Romanian public. Curleys were responsible for such public duties as building and caring for temples, public buildings, traffic and other aspects of Rome's daily life; perhaps, above all, the councils cared for the organization of public games on the occasion of state holidays and the administration of the Maximus Circus. Caesar borrowed, at that time, to the point of bankruptcy, but he irreversibly increased his popularity among the common people. The games he organized were spectacular and his ambitious construction projects. In a show organized in honor of his father, Caesar portrayed 320 pairs of silver armor gladiators, which cost enormously.

Caesar pushed his agenda further by raising some statues of Marius. The senate felt ultragayed, but Caesar's popularity made it almost intangible. Senators could try to block their political route by other means. Caesar might have been nominated to take the lead in suppressing a revolt in Egypt but could not have enough support to get that job. Caesar ended his year as an elder in glory, but bankrupt. His debts reached several hundred talents of gold (equivalent to several million euros at the current exchange rate), threatening the future of his career. His coil, Bibulus, was so impatient in comparison that he would later declare the frustration that throughout the time as the Elder, the merits were attributed to Caesar alone, instead of sharing the praises with Bibulus.

The success in the dignity of the elder was Caesar's great help at his election as Pontifex Maximus (high priest) in 63 BC, following the death of his predecessor, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. The position meant occupying a new house - Domus Publica (public house) - in For, involving the responsibility for all the Roman religious attributions and the patronage of the vestigial priests of the goddess Vesta. For Caesar, appointment meant relief of his debts; at the same time it gave him considerable power. Although in technical terms the Pontiff did not represent a political position, it also offered considerable advantages in relation to the Senate and legislative changes.

The debut as pontifex was marked by a scandal. Following the death of his wife, Cornelia, Caesar married in 67 BC. with Pompeia Sulla, a granddaughter of Sulla. As a wife of pontifex and matroana (Latin "married woman"), Pompeia was responsible for organizing the Bona Dea festival in December, a ritual dedicated exclusively to women and considered sacred. But Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to penetrate into the house where he was, disguised as a woman. This was considered absolute sacrilege, which is why Pompeia received a divorce letter. Caesar himself admitted that Pompeia might have been innocent, but said: "Caesar's wife, like Caesar's entire family, must be above suspicion."

63 BC it was a difficult year not only for Caesar, but also for the Roman Republic. Caesar ran and won the presidential election in 62 BC. Before he had settled in his new post, Catilina's Conspiracy was triggered, which put Caesar back in direct conflict with optimism. Lucius Sergius Catilina, twice a consul candidate, faces allegations of planning to overthrow the republic by armed rebellion. But Catilina's guilt was controversial. At the election of the end of 63 BC, Marcus Tullius Cicero defeated Catilina in the consular electoral race.

Shortly thereafter, Crassus received anonymous letters informing him that various senators had to leave Rome to avoid massacring government leaders. Crassus took Cicero's letters, which presented the Senate's conspiracy. Many of his members did not believe him, being convinced that Cicero made the whole story for political gain. But Cicero's oratoric eloquence convinced the Senate that this plot required extreme action. Senatus consultum ultimum has given Cicero the authority to deal with conspirators. Catilina, among others, became the first target. In response, he decided to flee Rome, but not before he had been involved in a plot to assassinate Cicero. The plot has failed, and Catalina has gone to join the rebellion in Etruria. They were sentenced to death and executed, without trial, five notable Romanians, Catilina's allies. The alternative would be exile, pre-trial incarceration not used; But if they were exiled, the condemned would have been at the head of Catilina's armies in Etruria. The Senate discussed this issue, and Caesar was one of the few who opposed capital punishment.

Involvement in Catilina's business did not cause Caesar any lasting disadvantage. In the following years, Caesar began a mandate as an urban pretor. From this elite position he once again promoted his popular politics. He asked for an account to restore the capital, which the optimists refused. Without success in this attempt, Caesar strengthened his coalition with Pompeii, who would soon return to Rome from his campaigns in the East. Pompey's return was anxious for the optimists, who were afraid of a march in Sulla's style over Rome and the establishment of the dictatorship. They needed to portray the city and its surroundings as a stable environment without the need for Pompey's "restorative order". Pompey's ally, Caecilius Metellus Nepos, however, brought the matter to the Senate, demanding that Pompey be allowed to come to Italy and restore. Caesar supported Nepos and Pompey, but Cato thwarted the motion. Nepos fled Rome to join Pompey, and Caesar was removed from the pretorium. When the crowd in support of Caesar threatened violently, he was reinstated. Caesar calms down the crowd before recourse to violence.

Towards the end of his pretorn mandate, Cezar was found to be embezzled and sued for misappropriation of the fund. Crassus again jumped to his aid, paying a quarter of the total of 20 million dinars. Finally, until 61 BC, Caesar was appointed as the governor of Lusitania, the province where he had been a quaestor. With this appointment, his creditors withdrew, allowing him a profitable status. The abandonment of Rome before officially taking over proved that Caesar did not want to take any risk.

Caesar and his staff rode in force, reaching Rhone in just eight days, and he saw his future ability to organize the high-speed movement of some army units. On their way, many entourage members noted the barbaric and, in their view, the miserable living standard of the villages. Caesar, demonstrating his ambition, replied, "For my part, I would prefer to be the first man among these men than the second in Rome." During his tenure as governor, Caesar strengthened his relationship with the Celtic peoples, which proved to be an important factor in his later plans.

Once he arrived in Hispania, Caesar made a remarkable reputation as a military commander. Between 61 BC and 60 BC, won important battles against the Galician and Lusitan tribes. During one of his victories, his people acclaimed him as an emperor on the battlefield, which was an appreciation of the utmost importance to be an eligible Roman triumph. Caesar is in the face of a dilemma. He wanted to apply for consul post in 59 BC. and for this he had to be present in Rome, but he also wanted to receive the honor for a triumph. Optimis used this dilemma against him, forcing him to wait at the gates of the city until his triumph was confirmed. The delay would have cost Caesar the opportunity to run for the Consul post and put him in front of a fatal decision. In the summer of 60 BC, Caesar entered Rome to run for the highest position in the Roman Republic.

The first triumvirate

In 60 BC, Caesar's decision to refrain from his bid for a possible triumph (due to his achievements in Hispania) put him in a position to run for the consul. Although Caesar had an overwhelming popularity among members of the civic assemblies, he had to manipulate formidable alliances in the Roman Senate in order to secure his choice. Having a solid friendship with the fabulous Marcus Licinius Crassus, he approached his opponent Pompey the Great by proposing a coalition. Pompey was already frustrated by his inability to achieve territorial reform for his veterans in the East, and Caesar brilliantly sparked any dispute between the two powerful leaders at that time.

The Alliance (now known as the First Triumvirate) was formed at the end of 60 BC, and has remained remarkably secret for a good period of time. Pompey and Crassus agreed to use their fortunes and power to help Caesar's candidacy at the consulate, and instead Cezar would influence the political agendas of the two. Caesar and Crassus, who were already good friends for a decade, consolidated their alliance with Pompey, giving Cezar's daughter Julia Cezaris to marry. The Alliance combines Cezar's enormous popularity among the plebeians and his reputation, with his wealth and influence on Crassus's plutocracy of the great commissioners, along with Pompey's military reputation, wealth and senatorial influence. With the help of these, Caesar easily won the position of the consul, but the Optimati succeeded in choosing Cezar's former co-president, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, as junior consul.

Once in office, in 59 BC, Caesar's agenda was the creation of a law stipulating that all debates and proceedings in the Senate were made public. After that, he respected his agreement with Pompey. Land from unpopulated parts of Italy would be returned and offered to the Pompeii veterans. Thus, Caesar did not only improve the problem of the unemployed crowd in Rome, but also satisfied the wishes of Pompey's legions. But Cato the Young, along with the Optimati's faction, opposed the concept, for the simple reason that it was Caesar's idea. The Consul rebuked the Senate and brought the issue straight to the people.

As he spoke before a Citizens' Assembly, Caesar asked his co-consul, Bibulus, about his feelings about such legislation. His answer was simple: the law could not be accepted, even if everyone wanted it. At this point, the so-called first triumvirate was made public, and Pompey and Crassus strongly approved the emergency measure. The law was supported by the overwhelming reaction of the public, and Bibulus retreated to his home in disgrace. Bibulus spent the rest of his consular year trying to use religious signs to prove that Caesar's laws were null and void in value in an attempt to impoverish the political system. Instead, he gave involuntarily complete autonomy to Caesar in order to make possible almost anything he proposed. After Bibulus' withdrawal, the consular year of the two would be named, jokingly: the year of Julius and Caesar.

Caesar received the proconsul of Gaul Cisalpine and Illyria, giving him the opportunity to equate his political victories with military glories. This five-year, unprecedented position in a relatively secure field was an obvious sign of Caesar's ambition for external conquests. The future campaigns led by Caesar were, at this time, at his own discretion. As a plus of luck, the governor of Gaul Narbonensis had died, and the province was also entrusted to Caesar.

In 59 BC, Caesar had the support of the people, alongside the two most powerful people in Rome (except for him), and the opportunity to have infinite glory in Gaul. At the age of forty, although he held the highest post in Rome and continued to defeat his opponents at every turn, his true grandeur would come later. Rapidly shifting through the relative safety of the subordinated provinces, to invoke his imperium and avoid judgment, Caesar would alter the geopolitical platform of the ancient world.

Gallic wars

Gaius Julius Caesar appropriated official control over the provinces of Illyria, Galia Cisalpina and Galia Transalpina in 59 BC. Beyond Galia Transalpine, there was a vast territory, equivalent to today's France, called Galia Comata, where there were independent confederations of Celtic tribes who maintained different ties with Rome. But as soon as he held his position, a Celtic tribe living on the territory of contemporary Switzerland, the Swiss, planned to migrate from the Alpine region to the west of today's France. However, in order to make such a migration, the Helvetians should have not only marched through territories under Roman control but also crossed the territory of the tribe Aedui, allied with the Romans. Other Celtic gels and other people in the province of Galia Narbonensis were afraid that the helveys would not vandalize everything in their way until their final destination. Without losing time, Caesar opposed the idea and hurriedly recruited two new legions.

Several other tribes joined the helvetic movement, becoming in time the largest and most powerful tribe in Gaul. In total, according to Caesar's writings, nearly 370,000 people were gathered, of whom 260,000 were women, children and other non-combatants. After they set off on the road, ignoring Caesar's objection, the troops would meet inevitably. After several strikes, Caesar conquered the mountain with its six legions, pushing the opponent into an unbalanced battle. Near the capital of the Aedui tribe, Caesar crushed the elves, slaughtering them, regardless of their opponent's status. According to Caesar, of the 370,000 enemies mobilized, only 130,000 survived the battle. In the following days he ordered the troops to follow what remained of the enemy army; it looks like another 20,000 people have been killed. Almost at the same time, at the end of 59 BC, the German leader Ariovistus, the head of the Suebi tribe, led an invasion of Gaul through attacks on the border region, but Caesar stifled the situation at that time, arranging an alliance with the Germans, at the beginning of 58 BC. He forced the Germans back to the East along the Rhine and used the pretext of "protecting the Allies of Rome" to continue their conquests in the north.

In the spring of 57 BC, Caesar was in Gaul Cisalpina, taking care of the administration of his government. Despite the grandiose thanks given by the various Gallic tribes, dissatisfaction grew. Caesar heard a rumor about the formation of a confederation of Gallic tribes under Belgian rule to oppose the Roman presence in Gaul. Caesar returned to his legions in a hurry, forming two new legions of this kind, made up of Galician "citizens", their total number now being eight.

Upon the arrival of Caesar, probably in July 57 BC, the rumors of the Gallic opposition had come to pass. Caesar moved quickly, surprising the Gallic tribes before they joined the opposition and turned them into allies. As reprisals, the Belgian tribes began the attack. With the eight legions, the Romans shattered the attack through a difficult battle. For Caesar, victory had a double connotation: not just an army victory, but a political one, accompanied by solitary propaganda as well. Protecting his "allies" from external aggression, he could now securely secure the necessary legality against the Belgian tribes. Although it was another difficult campaign, it was exactly the kind of chance Caesar wanted. He continued to the north, conquering everything in his path, either through politics or the army.

At the start of the campaign in 56 BC, Caesar believed that Gaul was not yet ready for the Roman occupation. Caesar sent his generals to every corner of Gaul to suppress any resistance in their way. Publius Crassus, the son of Marcus Crassus, was sent to Aquitaine with twelve legionary cohorts to subjugate the tribes there. With the help of Gallic auxiliary troops, Crassus quickly brought Roman control to the westernmost part of Gaul. Decimus Brutus, the youngest future assassin of Caesar, was sent north to today's Britain to build a fleet among the Venetians. The Venetians controlled the waterways with a formidable fleet of their own, but supported by the British Celts. Originally the Gallic vessels exceeded the Roman ones, and Brutus could not prevent the operations of the Venetians. But the Roman ingenuity came into action, and they began to use hooks launched by the archers to conquer the vessels of the Venetians. Soon the Venetians were completely defeated, and like many tribes before them, sold as slaves.

In total, dozens of tribes were forced to capitulate to Roman domination, and hundreds of thousands of prisoners were sent back to Rome as slaves. With the defeat of Gallic resistance, Caesar turned his attention over the English Channel. However, the conquest was not as complete as it seemed. Caesar had to confront first other Germanic incursions before he could cross the island. And, despite his confidence, the Gallic tribes were by no means as subdued as he believed. For the time being, however, Caesar returned to Galia Cisalpina to deal with the political issues in Rome.

Germany, Britain and Vercingetorix

Until 56 BC, as Caesar pushed Roman control over the entire Gallic province, the political situation in Rome was about to collapse. In the middle of the planning of the next actions in Gaul, Britain and Germany, Caesar returned to Galia Cisalpina, knowing that the support to the Roman Senate had to be asserted again. Pompey was in northern Italy, taking care of his duties in the grain commission, and Crassus went to Ravenna to meet Caesar. Caesar, however, summoned both of them to Lucca for a conference, and the three triumvials were joined by up to 200 senators. Although support in Rome was clear, this meeting was aimed at triumvirate goals, which proved to be a much larger coalition than just three people. But Caesar needed Pompey and Crassus to understand in order to maintain the whole understanding. Caesar's command had to be prolonged to be secured against the judgment.

The agreement he understood would have given Caesar the prolongation he needed, while Pompey and Crassus had the opportunity to gain power. Pompey and Crassus were to be consuls simultaneously for 55 BC, Pompey entrusted his Hispania region, and Crassus receiving Syria. Pompey, jealous of the growth of the Caesar's army, wanted the security of a provincial prince with legions, and Crassus wanted the opportunity of military glory eastward in Parthia. After resolving the problems, Crassus and Pompey returned to Rome to participate in the elections of 55 BC. Despite the fierce opposition from the Optimati, including a delay in the election, the consul status of the two was confirmed until follow. Caesar did not take any risk, however, and sent his wedding ceremony, Publius Crassus, back to Rome, along with 1,000 people to "keep order". The presence of these people, coupled with the popularity of Crassus and Pompey, has hardly succeeded in stabilizing the situation. Caesar hastily returned to Gaul to put his first Roman invasion in Britain.

Before Caesar could concentrate on Britain, a Germanic invasion along the Rhine, in ubian territory, turned his attention to Germany. The invaders sent ambassadors to Caesar saying they wanted peace, but Caesar asked them to move from Gaul and ordered the mobilization of his legions to do so. Before Caesar began the attacks, his cavalry was attacked by surprise, 78 Romanians being killed in the battle. A major-scale assault was then launched on the German camp and, according to Cezar, 430,000 German men left without a leader, women and children were gathered together. The Romans slaughtered without discrimination, sending people to Rin, where many others drowned drowning. It is not known what the number of victims was until the end, but Caesar claimed he did not even lose a soldier.

Civil war

In 50 BC, the Senate headed by Pompey ordered Cezar to return to Rome and demobilize his army for his term as the proconsul had ended. In addition, the Senate forbids Caesar to run for a second consulate in his absence. Caesar believed that he would be judged and politically marginalized if he had entered Rome without the immunity his position had given him as consul or without the power of his army. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and betrayal. On January 10, 49 BC. Caesar crosses the Rubicon (the border of Italy) and attacks his own homeland, the Roman republic, with the idea of ​​installing a dictator. Historians contradict what Caesar's say when crossing the Rubicon. It would have said "Alea iacta est" ("Dice are thrown"), or "Let the dice fly to high!" (A quote from the poet Menander). This minor controversy occasionally appears in modern literature when an author attributes Menander's lesser quotation to Caesar. Optimati, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Young, fled to the south, not knowing that Caesar was accompanied only by the 10th Legion. Caesar followed Pompey to Brundisium, hoping to restore his previous alliance for ten years. Pompey avoided him, however, and Caesar made a stunning 27-day march to Spain, where he defeated Pompey's lieutenants. Then he returned to the east to provoke Pompey in Greece, where on July 10, 48 BC. at Dyrrhacium Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat. He defeated Pompey decisively, despite his numerical advantage (almost double infantry and extra cavalry) at Pharsalus in a violent and short-lived battle in 48 BC. Pompey fled to Egypt where he was killed by an officer in the service of King Ptolemy XIII. In Rome, Caesar demands that he be appointed dictator, having Marc Antoniu as first lieutenant; Caesar resigned from the post of dictator after eleven days and forced himself to be elected for the second time to the consul, alongside Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. He followed Pompey to Alexandria, where he set up his army camp and became involved in the Alexandrian civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife and queen with whom he led, the pharaoh Cleopatra VII. Perhaps Caesar's alliance with Cleopatra was a result of the role that Ptolemy had in killing Pompey; it is reported that Caesar would have wept at the sight of Pompey's head, which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain, Pothinus, as a gift. Caesar then defeats Ptolemy's forces and installs Cleopatra as a ruler, with whom he will grow up his only known biological son, Ptolemeu XV Caesar, better known as Caesarion. Caesar and Cleopatra never married. After spending the first months of 47 BC. In Egypt, Caesar goes to the Middle East, where he annihilates King Farnace II of Pont in the Battle of Zela; his battle was so concrete and complete that he commemorated the words Veni, vidi, vici ("I came, I saw, I conquered"). He then went to Africa to solve the problem of Ptolemy's other senatorial supporters. He quickly won a significant victory at Thapsus in 46 BC. in front of the forces of Metellus Scipio (who dies in the battle) and Cato the Young (who is committing suicide). However, the sons of Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeyus, along with Titus Labienus, the former Prophettorian wedding of Cezar (legatus propraetore) and the second in command in the Gallic War, survive the battles in Spain. Caesar pursued and defeated the last remnants of the opponents in the Battle of Munda in March 45 BC. During this time, Caesar was elected for his third and fourth terms as Consul in the 46's .hr. (alongside Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) and 45 BC. (without partner).

After the war

Caesar returns to Italy in September of 45 BC. He completes his will among his first tasks, calling Octavian as the sole successor. The Senate had already begun to offer honors even in its absence. Though Caesar did not expel his enemies but forgive almost every one of them, it seemed to be a very low open resistance.

Great games and celebrations were held on April 21 to honor the great victory of Caesar. With the games, Caesar was honored with the right to wear triumphal clothing, including a dark red robe (evoking the kings of Rome) and the crown of laurels at all public occasions. A great estate was built on the expense of Rome for the exclusive use of Caesar. The title of imperator became a legal one that he would use for the rest of his life. An ivory statue likened it to all public religious processions.

Another statue of Caesar was placed in the temple of Quirinus with the inscription of the Invincible God. As Quirinus was the deformed resemblance of the city and its founder and first king, Romulus, this act identified Caesar not just on the same scale as the gods, but also with the ancient kings. A third statue was raised on the chapter next to those of the seven Roman kings and that of Lucius Junius Brutus, the man who led the revolt that led to the elimination of kings. But in other scandalous behaviors, Caesar struck coins with his likeness. For the first time in the history of Rome, a novel in life was depicted on a coin.

When Caesar returned to Rome in October 45 BC, he gave the fourth consulate (which he had led without a partner) and placed Quintus Fabius Maximus and Gaius Trebonius in his place. This irritated the Senate because Caesar had not taken full account of the republican system of choice and acted accordingly with his own whim. Celebrate a fourth triumph, this time to honor the victory in Spain. The Senate continued to grant him other honors. A Libertas temple was to be built in his honor, and he received the title of Liberator. The consul is elected for life and is allowed to occupy any office he desires, including those generally reserved for the plebeians. Rome seemed willing to give Caesar the unprecedented right to be the only imperial ruler. With this, only Caesar would be immune from the legal judgment and would have the technical command of the supreme command over all the Roman legions.

Caesar demanded other honors, which definitively eliminated democracy and established the dictatorship. He also asked for the right to appoint half of all magistrates, positions that were then filled by vote. He also appointed magistrates for all provincial duties, a process so far made by random choice or Senate approval. The month of his birth, Quintilis, was named July (after Julian's Latin) in his honor, and the day he was born, July 13, was recognized as a national holiday. Even a clan of the people's assembly would have his name. A temple and religious class, Major Flamen, would be raised and dedicated to his family's honor.

Caesar, however, had a so-called reforming agenda, also addressing various social issues. It approved a law stipulating that Romanian citizens aged between 20 and 40 were forbidden to leave Italy for more than 3 years, excluding those in military service. Theoretically, this would have helped preserve the continued operation of local farms and businesses and prevented corruption abroad. If a member of the social elite would have done wrong or would have killed a member of the lower class, then his entire fortune would be confiscated. Caesar demonstrated that he still had the best interests of the state in his soul, though he thought he was the only person able to lead him. A general cancellation of a quarter of all debts has greatly relieved the audience and helped to make it even more popular among ordinary people.

Caesar has very strictly regulated the purchase of state subsidized grain, prostitutes, and forbade those who allowed their private supply of grain to buy from the state. He made plans to distribute the land to his veterans and to the settlements of veteran colonies throughout the Roman world. One of the most important reforms came after his lifetime election as Pontifex Maximus. Caesar ordered a complete revision of the Roman calendar, setting a 365-day jump every four years (this Julian calendar was later modified by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, becoming today's modern calendar). As a result of this reform, 46 BC. it was actually 445 days longer to bring it to order.

Additionally, large public works have taken place. Rome was a city of large urban and non-impressive brick architecture and desperately needed a renovation. A new Marble Rustra, horse fields and new markets were built. A public bookstore under the tutelage of the great learned Varro was also under construction. The House of the Senate, Curia Hostilia, which had been repaired recently, was abandoned for a new marble project called Curia Iulia. The sacred border - Pomerium - of the city has been expanded to allow additional growth.

Plutarch reports that at one point, Caesar informed the Senate that he was a homosexual and that his honors were granted more by the need of reduction than augmentation, but he withdrew that position in order not to seem ungrateful. He was awarded the title of Pater Patriae ("Father of the Fatherland"). He was appointed a dictator for the third time and then nominated for nine consecutive one-year terms as a dictator, making him an effective dictator for ten years. He also received censorship authority as moral prefect (praefectus morum) for three years.

At the beginning of 44 BC, the honors demanded by Caesar continued, and the chasm between him and the aristocrats adhering to democracy deepened. He had been called the Dictator Perpetuus, becoming a dictator for his entire life. This title was beginning to appear even on the coins bearing Caesar's resemblance, placing it above all the other citizens of Rome. Some even began to refer to his person as "Rex" (the Latin for the king), but Caesar refused to accept that title although he wanted that position. At the new Caesar Temple for Venus, a senatorial delegation went to consult him, but Caesar refused to stop and talk with them. Although the event is overshadowed by several other different versions of the story, it is obvious that the senators present there felt deeply insulted. In an attempt to rectify the situation, something later Caesar dramatically exposed his friends' neck, saying he was ready to offer it to anyone who would bring a sword blow to him. It seemed to have calmed down at least the situation, but the evil had already been produced. The seeds of the conspiracy had begun to grow.

The murder - assassination

The deeds of Caesar, the liquidation of democracy, and the possible proclamation of Caesar as king, amplified the anti-dictatorial spirits, especially after the deposition of a diadem on the statue of Caesar of Rostra. Tribes, Gaius Epidius Marcellus and Lucius Caesetius Flavius ​​have removed this diadem. Not long after this incident, the same two tribes arrested the citizens who pronounced the title of Rex to Caesar as he crossed the streets of Rome. Seeing his threatened supporters, Caesar acted severely. He ordered the release of those arrested and instead brought tributes to the Senate, removing their positions. Caesar had originally used the tribute sanctification as one of the reasons why he started the civil war, but now he revoked his power in his own gain.

The Lupercalia Festival was to be the greatest test for the Romanian people on accepting Caesar as king. On February 15, 44 BC, Caesar sat on his golden seat on Rostra, wearing his red robe, red shoes, crown of laurels and army titled Dictator Perpetuus. The race around the pomerium was a tradition of the festival, and when Marc Antoniu entered the forum, it was raised in Rostra by the priests participating in the festivity. Antony pulled out a diadem and tried to put it on Caesar's head, saying, "The people give you this title of king through me." But the audience cheers were as if they were nonexistent, and Caesar quickly refused, making sure that the headpiece did not touch his head. The audience screamed with approval, but Antoniu ignored the facts and tried to put her on the head for the second time. Not this time, the audience did not exult, and Caesar stood up from his seat and refused again, saying, "I will not be the king of Rome. Jupiter is the only king of the Romans. "The crowd immediately approved the actions of Caesar.

During this time, Caesar planned a new campaign in Dacia and then in Parthia. The Parthenian campaign could have brought considerable riches back to Rome, and the possibility of returning to the standards that Crassus had lost nearly nine years ago. An old legend said that the party could only be conquered by a king, so Caesar was authorized by the Senate to wear a crown anywhere in the empire. Caesar had planned to leave for April 44 BC, and his secret democratic counterparts, whose numbers were constantly growing, had to act in a hurry. Most of the people whom Caesar had already pledged, they were aware that the only way to remove Caesar from the leadership of Rome was to act before he had begun to Parthia.

The place of meeting of the Romanian Senate was traditionally in Curia Hostilia, the repair of which was recently completed after the fires that had destroyed it in previous years, but the Senate abandoned it for a new house under construction. So Caesar summoned the Senate in Theatrum Pompeium (built by Pompey) at Mars Idea on March 15, 44 BC. A few days ago, a predicator had told Caesar: "Beware of Idele's Mars". On the day of the senate meeting, Caesar was attacked and stabbed to death by a group of senators, who were called Liberators; they justified their action by saying that they committed tyrannid, not murder, defending the Republic from the monarchical ambitions claimed by Caesar. Among the assassins who were imprisoned in the Temple of Jupiter were Gaius Trebonius, Decimus Junius Brutus, Marcus Junius Brutus, and Gaius Cassius Longinus; Caesar had enjoyed most of the crimes, and had even advanced them in his career. Marcus Brutus was a distant cousin of Caesar and had been named as one of his testamentary heirs. It is also speculated that Marcus Brutus was the illegitimate son of Caesar, since he had had an affair with Servilia Caepionis, Brutus' mother; but Caesar was only fifteen years old when Brutus was born. Caesar received 23 blows (according to others, even 35), which varied between superficial and deadly, and the irony of fate collapsed at the feet of a statue of his former friend, becoming rival Pompey the Great. Pompey had recently been deposed by the Senate, some reports saying that Caesar prayed to Pompey while he was dying. His last words have been portrayed in various ways, such as:

  • (Kai su, teknon?) (Gr., "Even you, my son?" - from Suetonius)
  • (lat., "And you, Brutus, my son!" - a modern Latin translation of a Greek quote from Suetonius)
  • (Latter, "Even (you), Brutus?" - from the play of Shakespeare, Julius Caesar)

The consequences of the assassination

Caesar's death marked, ironically, the end of the Roman republic, a republic for the good of which he had been killed. The middle and inferior social classes, in which Caesar was so popular before the victory in Gaul, were angry that a small group of aristocrats had killed the hero. Anthony's famous speech in Shakespeare's play, "Friends, Romans, fellow citizens, give me your attention" may have had no real equivalent, but faithfully reflects the public attitude to Caesar's death. Anthony, who for a long time had distanced himself from Caesar, used the annoyance of the Roman crowd and threatened to unleash the best, perhaps in the intention of taking control of Rome himself. But Caesar had named his nephew Gaius Octavius ​​as the sole heir of his vast wealth, giving Octavius ​​both the immense power provided by Cezar's name and control over one of the greatest assets in the republic. In addition, Gaius Octavius ​​was, for all intents and purposes, the son of the great Caesar, and consistently the loyalty of the Roman population passed from Caesar to Octavius. Octavius, just 19 years old at the death of Caesar, proved to have been cruel and cruel. While Antoniu handled Decimus Brutus, in the first round of new civil wars, Octavius ​​strengthened its position. In order to fight Brutus and Cassius, who led the absence of a large army in Greece, Antony needed both the wealth of Caesar's warheads and the legitimacy that Caesar's name offered to any action he would have be deployed against the two. A new triumvirate was formed, the second and the last, with Octavius, Antony, and the loyal commander of Caesar's cavalry, Lepidus. The Second Triumvirate deified Caesar as divus Iulius and, seeing that his killing was possible precisely because of his clemency, the horror of the proscriptions, abandoned in Sulla's age, was brought back to the triumvirate's enemies in order to acquire and more funds for the Second Civil War, taken against Brutus and Cassius, which Antoniu and Octavian defeated at Philippi. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on the one hand and Antoniu and Cleopatra on the other. This last civil war culminated in the defeat of Anthony and Cleopatra in Actium and the political rise of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, named Cezar Augustus. In 42 BC, Caesar was officially divinified as divus Julius (divine Iulius), and Caesar Augustus became divi filius (the divine son).

Caesar writing list

Caesar was considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose writers. Cicero himself praised the rhetoric and Caesar's style. Among the most famous works are the funeral speech for his paternal aunt, Julia (Marius's widow), and Anticato, a document destined to destroy Cato's reputation in Utica and to be replied to Cicero's Cato memorial. Most of Caesar's works and speeches were lost. The most famous of which have been preserved:

  • Commentaries by bello gallico (Comments on the Gallic War), reports about the campaigns in Gaul and Britain during his mandate of the proconsul and
  • Commentaries by bello civil (Civil War Remarks), civil war events, until Pompey's death.

Other writings attributed to Caesar, but whose literary paternity is questioned, are:

  • De bello hispaniensis (About the Hispanic War), campaigns in Hispania;
  • De bello africo (About the African War), campaigns in North Africa, and
  • De bello alexandrino (About the Alexandrian War), campaigns in Alexandria.

These narratives, written in a straightforward and simple style, are in fact sophisticated means of propaganda for his political agenda, especially for the middle class or small aristocracy of Rome, Italy and the provinces.

"Military Caesar"

Caesar was born in Rome, in a well-known family of patricians (Ginta Julia), presumably descended from Julius, the son of Trojan prince Eneas, who, legendously, was the son of Venus. According to a legend, Caesar's birth was possible via caesarean, but it is unlikely, because at that time such an incision was made only on the deceased women. Caesar grew up in a modest dwelling of an ancient building (island) in Suburba, the middle-class district of Rome. Caesar's family, though with patrician descendancy, so aristocratic, was not wealthy, according to the standards of the Roman nobility. Thus, no family member has ever been remarked in society during Caesar's childhood, although in his father's generation a renewal of family fortune had taken place. The paternal aunt, Julia, married Gaius Marius, a talented and reforming general of the Roman army. Marius became one of the richest inhabitants of Rome, his political influence also contributing to the improvement of the material situation of Caesar's family. Toward the end of Marius' life, in 86 BC, internal politics reached a point of rupture. During this period, Roman politicians were generally divided into two parties: Populares, which included Marius and Optimates, including Lucius Cornelius Sulla. A series of disputes between the two parties led to a civil war, finally opening Sulla's path to the post of dictator. Because of the family bond, Caesar was adherent to Marius's party. He was not just Marius's nephew: he was married to Cornelia Cinnilla, the youngest daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, who was Marius's greatest sympathizer and Sulla's declared enemy. In 85 BC, when Caesar was 15, his father became ill and died. Caesar became the heir of most properties and assets owned by his father and Marius. When Sulla emerged victorious from the civil war and began his enlistment program, Caesar, aged 20, was in a difficult situation. Sulla ordered them in 82 BC. to divorce Cornelia, but Caesar refused and went away from Rome to hide. Sulla pardoned Caesar and his family and allowed her to return to Rome. At a prophetic moment, it is said that Sulla commented on the danger of leaving Caesar alive. According to Suetonius, when the Caesar's exile was revoked, the dictator would have said, "He, whose life you want so much, will someday become the one who will overthrow the nobles whose cause you support with me; for in this one Caesar you will find many like Marius. "



  • July 13, 100 BC - The birth of Rome. Alternative date: July 12, 102 BC
  • 84 BC - First marriage - Cornelia Cinnilla
  • 82 BC - The end of Sulla's persecution
  • 81/79 BC - Military service in Asia and Cilicia; possible connection with Nicomedes of Bithynia
  • 70 BC - He's been a lawyer
  • 69 BC - The death of Cornelia. Quaestor in the Upper Hispania
  • 65 BC - Demility of Edil curly
  • 63 BC - Second marriage - Pompeia Sulla,
  • December, Divorce of Pompeia
  • He is elected Pontifex Maximus and praetor urbanus
  • Catilina's conspiracy
  • 61 BC - Propeller in Hispania Later
  • 59 BC - The first consulate, alongside Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus; the beginning of the First Triumvirate
  • The third marriage - Calpurnia Pisonis
  • 58 BC / 53 BC - Proconsul of Gaul, the first term
  • 54 BC - Death of Julia
  • 53 BC - Crassus's death: the end of the First Triumvirate
  • 53 BC / 48 BC - Second term as the Proconsul of Gaul
  • 52 BC - The Battle of Alesia
  • 49 BC - Crossing the Rubicon; the beginning of the civil war
  • 48 BC - Pompey's defeat in Greece in the Battle of Pharsalus. Dictator named (serves 11 days)
  • The second consulate, alongside Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus
  • 47 BC - Campaign in Egypt. Relationship with Cleopatra VII
  • 46 BC - The defeat of Cato and Metellus Scipio in northern Africa. The third consulate, alongside Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
  • The second dictatorship
  • Pontifex Maximus for Life (introduces the Julian calendar). Adopting Octavian as heir
  • 45 BC - The defeat of the last opposition in Hispania
  • Return to Rome. The fourth consulate (no partner)
  • The Senate calls him Pater Patriae. Third term of dictator
  • 44 BC Fifth consulate, alongside Marc Antoniu
  • Perpetual dictator
  • February: Rejects Antoniu's diadem
  • March 15: Assassination of Caesar
  • 42 BC - Official Deification: Divus Julius (Divine Iuliu)



Caesar was named number 67 in the list of the most influential figures in history, written by Michael H. Hart.

He was given the title Divus, or god, after his death.

During his life, he received many distinctions, including titles such as Pater Patriae (Father of the Fatherland), Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest) and Dictator. In fact, many of the titles for which the Senate has voted are considered a cause of its assassination, in view of the fact that it seemed inappropriate for many of its contemporaries as a mortal to receive so many honors.

Maybe the most significant title he wore was the name he received at birth: Caesar. The name would be given to every Roman Emperor and became a signal of great power and authority away from the boundaries of the empire (such as the German Kaiser and the Russian Tsar).


Cezar's comet is known by ancient authors as Sidus Iulium ("Steaua Iuliana") or Caesaris astrum ("Caesar's Star"). This brilliant and visible daytime comet suddenly appeared during Ludi Victoriae Caesaris, which is now known to have been held in July 44 BC, four months after the assassination of Caesar, and in the month of his birth. According to Suetonius, while celebrations unfolded, "a comet rose at eleventh hour, shone continuously for seven days, and it was believed that Caesar's soul was received in heaven."

For his deeds and merits, Julius Caesar was declared god, with the divisive epithet attached to his family name. In popular beliefs spread the idea that Iupiter took him to Olympus.

Caesar Statue

Statue of Caesar

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