Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (16 November 42 BC - March 16, 37), was the second Roman emperor and reigned from the death of Augustus in the year 14 until his death in 37.
Son of Senator Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla, Tiberius becomes, after the marriage of his mother with Octavianus, in 38 BC, the stepfather of the future emperor Augustus. Tiberius benefits from a brilliant education and begins his gunship as a tribunus militum in the campaign of Augustus of Hispania against the cantabrian tribes of 26-25. In 20 BC leads the Roman message in the Orient, which installs a clientele king of Rome on the throne of Armenia, and after the conclusion of the Roman-Part Treaty, he obtains the restitution of the Roman emblems lost in the Battle of Carrhae (53 BC).
Image of Tiberius
Together with his brother, Nero Claudius Drusus, Tiberius subjects, in the 15th-13th centuries, the Tribes and Vindelic tribes in the Alps and the Upper Danube. Between 12-9 BC, conquers the region between the Eastern and Middle Danes, populated by Celtic tribes and Ilire (future Pannonie), and joins the Illyricum province. After the death of Drusus, he took command of the Roman forces from Rin, carrying out campaigns in Germany between Rin and Elba (8-6 BC). Married, against his will, in 12 BC, with Julia, the daughter of Emperor Augustus, he would have to self-exile for seven years in the island of Rhodes (6 BC-2d) due to the failure of marriage and politics dynasty of Augustus. The death of the two grandchildren of Augustus, Lucius and Caesar Gaius, determined the Emperor to adopt and indirectly appoint Tiberius (who now changes his name Tiberius Claudius Nero to Tiberius Iulius Caesar).
Called again commander of the Roman forces in the Rhine, Tiberius undertook in the 4-6 campaigns at the east of the river against the Cherubs, Chaucas and Longobars, to the banks of the Elbe. After the outbreak of the powerful anti-Roman uprisings of the tribes of Pannonia and Dalmatia in the 6th year, Tiberius is named the supreme commander of the 15 Roman legions who will fight for three years until defeated rebels. Between 10-12, he is again at the forefront of the Roman forces in the Rhine. At the death of Augustus, Tiberius succeeds him at the throne of the Roman Empire. At age 56, when Tiberius was wearing purple, his personality had been deeply marked by the long military campaigns. The 23 years of his reign are only to accentuate his pessimism, suspicion and solitude. Energy vigorously, steadily, economically, he continues Augustus' policy of strengthening the prince's authority, improved provincial administration, strengthened state finances.
On the outside, Tiberius renounces the costly offensive policy in Germany, recalling Germanicus, his nephew, in Rome in Rome, and setting the border of the empire on the Rhine. The Moesia, Commagene and Cappadocia clientele are converted into Roman provinces. The anti-Roman outbreak in Africa and the north east of Gallia are violently suppressed by its generals. Tiberius dies ill on his way to Rome at Misenum on March 16, 37. Many historians claim that a general sent by his nephew, Caligula, would have killed him by suffocation after Tiberius began to recover. Caligula would have killed his uncle for the frequent sexual molestations applied to him, which traumatized his childhood.
Statue of Emperor Tiberius
The rise to power
As a stepfather of Augustus, Tiberius was well situated, but he did not automatically become a descendant of the imperial throne. In 25 BC, he was assigned the first post of officer in Cantabria. Five years later, he campaigned against the parties, redeeming the flags of Roman legions lost to Crassus at Carrahe. In 16 BC, he was appointed governor of Gaul and in 15 BC he conquered with his brother Drusus new territories in the Alps. As a reward, Tiberius was named the Consul for the first time in 13 BC.
In 12 BC, he was forced to divorce Agrippina from Vipsania to marry Augustus' widow's daughter, Julia, to become the protector of her sons, the Cesus young men, Caius and Lucius. They did not attract each other, and marriage was a disaster. Thus, Tiberius, disgusted by his own wife, was far away from her in campaigns. He asked for Augustus' permission to self-exile on the island of Rhodes, where he lived quietly for eight years. In year 2 BC, Julia was banished to Pandateria on the grounds of adultery, and Caius Caesar became the presumptive heir. Tiberius, having his marriage annulled, was forbidden to come to Rome until the year 2 when he was received on the condition of not interfering in public affairs.
After the death of Lucius and Caius, Livia began to plead the cause of her son. Augustus would have exclaimed the death bed for Tiberius "Woe to the Roman people, to be crushed by jaws that chew so slowly." Tiberius was considered austere and rigid, being adopted in August 4 by "state reasons," but was not enthusiastically accepted.
After the adoption, Tiberius re-established the legions over the Rhine, carrying conquering campaigns in the heart of Germany. In the 6th year, he left to repel a revolt in the Hemus Peninsula (Balkan Peninsula). He was there in the 9th year and was informed of Varus' disaster. He hastily turned Rin to strengthen the defensive line.
He returned to Rome in October 12 to celebrate a triumph. He had great military expertise, being endured in battles, but he did not have administrative experience. On his way back to the Hemus Peninsula, he was urgently called to the bottom of the dying Augustus, which he succeeded in the throne.
The first part of the reign
The first decision he made was the assassination of Agrippa Postumus, a serious rival, imprisoned on Planasia. Since August 12 he had the supreme power with Augustus and was considered the heir of his enormous personal wealth. He was reluctant to the Senate for the inheritance of Augustus' titles. He had to deal with the legions who had sworn faith to Augustus, and who took advantage of the change of leader to demand an increase in the volume. Tiberius sent Drusus, his son, to silence the legions of Panonia, but the revolt of the armies of Rin proved to be serious. It was hardly repressed by the adoptive son of Tiberius, Germanicus.
Drusus and Germanicus played an important role in the early years of Tiberius. Germanicus enjoys the prestige due to his genealogy line, being the great-grandson of Augustus, inheriting the Julian blood from his mother and marrying Augustus's great-grandfather, Agrippina Maior. Meanwhile, Tiberius limited the influence of Livia, who had received the title of Augusta through her husband's will, being denied the title of Mother of Nations. Germanicus remained with the army on Rin between 14-16, conducting successive campaigns in the center of Germany. He recovered two of the three standards of the Roman legions, lost after the catastrophic defeat, and buried the bodies of the Roman soldiers in that battle. The idea of pushing the border of the empire to the other side of the Rhine, Tiberius overturning the costly and useless operations, called Germanicus to Rome, was given up.
In 17, Germanicus celebrated a triumph and became a consul with Tiberius in the 18th. Germanicus seemed to be the chosen successor, but he headed to the Orient to solve the problems. He came into conflict with Gnaeus Piso, governor of Syria, and exceeded his authority by visiting Egypt without the Emperor's permission. Germanicus got sick and died in October 19, and Piso was suspected of poisoning him. He was tried for murder and forced to commit suicide. Germanicus is presented by Suetonoius in a brilliant light, like a superman. During the revolt of the legions of Rin, according to Tacitus, the soldiers would have wanted him as Emperor instead of Tiberius. Tiberius himself would have called him to Rome because he was envious of his success. In reality, he was a mediocre general, and the second campaign proved a disaster. At his death he was transformed into a popular hero, thanks to many people dissatisfied with Tiberius.
Drusus became a heirloom favorite, being appointed governor of Pannonia in the 17th. He returned to the 20th for triumph. He shared the function of consul with Tiberius. But he died prematurely in Rome in the year 23, being poisoned by his wife, Livilla, in complicity with her lover, Lucius Aelius Seianus, the Pretorian commander. With Tiberius' departure to Campania in 26, Seianus's power grew. Tiberius settled on Capri Island, 27, for the rest of his life. Thus, Seianus could decide the official meetings, placing himself in a higher position as consuls and senators. In the year 29, Livia, Tiberius's mother, died, and the Emperor did not even attend her funeral, even forbidden her zeal, and did not consider her will because of misunderstandings. Agrippina, the widow of Germanicus, and her bigger son, Nero, were arrested and accused by Seianus of plotting to follow Tiberius to the throne and exile to the Posian Islands. Agrippina was exiled to Pandateria, beaten with cruelty and died of inanity in the year 33. Her sons, Nero was forced to commit suicide, and Drusus died by forced starvation.
In 31, Seianus tried to get hold of power. Tiberius raised suspicions about him after having promoted him as a senator and made him a senator with him. He resorted to the help of Naevius Sutorius Macro, to whom he promised Seianus's position. At the Senate meeting, Macro replaced the Pretorian Guard with night-time soldiers, to whom he handed the letter to Tiberius, with the order to arrest Seianus. He was captured and killed, and his family and friends were hunted and killed. Tiberius had a changing character. He followed Augustus' model at first, attending regular senate sessions, attending games and shows, sharing generous gifts. But he did not have the tact of Augustus, and he did not know how to behave in society, having a reputable and arrogant reputation. The population was dissatisfied with Tiberius' refusal to hold a fabulous ceremony. He built very little, raising a temple near Augustus' Forum, which he did not finish. He used the prey of war to rebuild Castor's temple. He was considered stingy because he did not spend the money for construction or celebrations.
On the island of Capri
Tiberius, settled on Capri Island, was surrounded by astrologers and dedicated to literature. He limited the use of Greek words and even consulted many experts on the use of a foreign word in an official edict. He knew Latin and Greek perfection, composed lyrics in the style of Hellenic poets and was passionate about mythology. He mastered the rocky island of Capri, from Napoli Bay, to turn it into a place of relaxation. He chose the mountain peaks of the eastern part of the island as a place of construction for his inaccessible residence, Villa Iovis, requiring much ingenuity to build a masterpiece on uneven and small terrain. He built a vaulted courtyard over the vaulted tanks with luxurious reception halls, bathrooms and suites. Those people he did not like to throw them out of the cliff, or put them killed by bangles and rowing, according to Suetonius. He retains control of state affairs without intervening, being accused of hypocrisy, giving the Senate freedom of action while he held the real power.
He pretended to be guided by the principles of Augustus. He has been in charge of provincial governors for a long time, the record being 25 years and belonging to Poppaeus Sabinus, the governor of Moesia. When the prefect of Egypt increased the taxes, Tiberius rebuked him harshly, saying that his "sheep would be torn, not raced." He provided substantial funds to help Rome after the fires of the 27th and 36th years. Tiberius was forced to collect as many taxes as possible. The relationship between him and the Senate was cold. Even the slightest accusation was sufficient to obtain the conviction, a former former consul being convicted of having entered the toilet with a Tiberius coin upon him. The unscrupulous senators profited from this situation, being able to revenge their opponents.
The death of Tiberius
Tiberius spent his last years living in Capri, while the trials of treason continued with frenzy in Rome. He engrosses in sexual perversions, abused by babies, is surrounded by groups of boys and spins on homosexual acts. He instructed children to play between his thighs when he swam, calling him "his fishes." The young costume in peacocks and young women in nymphs and made them make love in the caves on the island. His bedrooms were decorated with paintings and erotic sculptures. Each participant had to have the pattern of the position he was asking him to use. He had a weakness for wine, and in his youth, when he was a general, he was nicknamed by his soldiers as "Biberius Caldius Mero" (the drinker drinking the warm wine). Its glass partners automatically become owners of important functions. Following a Baha'i orgy, Pomponius Flaccus becomes governor of Syria, while Lucius Piso becomes prefect of Rome. As it sinks into orgies and despair, Spain remains unrelated to consuls, while Gaul was invaded by the Germanic tribes, Moesia of Dacians and Armenia as parties. At the same time, Africa was engulfed by a strong anti-Roman uprising.
The issue of succession was not solved, with a dispute between Caligula, son of Germanicus, and Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus. Tiberius suspected that Gemellus was the fruit of the adultery committed by Livilla with Seianus. Thus, Caligula became the possible heir. In the year 37, Tiberius got sick during a walk through Campania. The illness took him to Misenum, in the seafront villa, where he died on March 16, at the age of 79. Tacitus writes that because he thought he had died, Caligula took his finger off his ring and was greeted as a king by the crowd. Tiberius woke up and wanted to eat. Caligula was terrified, and Marco, the Prefect's prefect, rushed in and choked the old man with a pillow. The news of Tiberius's death has caused joy rather than sadness. Many demanded that his body be thrown into Tiber, but Caligula cared for him to be carried under the watch of Augustus' Mausoleum, not being deified or condemned. He was despised from his youth, like "mud soaked in blood."